Color pattern mimicry in Heliconius butterflies provides a key example of trait evolution via selection on large effect genes. The first step is to identify the amino acid sites that have experienced convergent or parallel changes. To understand how individual genes drive the evolution of new, complex traits, we functionally characterized 5 enhancers of the red color pattern gene in Heliconius . NOTE Parallel Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Resistance in Lepidoptera Simon W. Baxter,*,1 Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez,† Anna Morrison,* Heiko Vogel,‡ Neil Crickmore,§ Wendy Kain,** Ping Wang,** David G. Heckel,‡ and Chris D. Jiggins* *Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom, †Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Introduction The independent evolution of similar traits in similar envi-ronments is classically used to support a deterministic role for natural selection in shaping evolution. How population size and mutational variation contribute to repeated evolution Susan F. Bailey1), Franc¸ois Blanquart2), Thomas Bataillon1) and Rees Kassen3) Parallel evolution is the repeated evolution of the same phenotype or genotype in evolutionarily independent populations. In particular, we observed that unique substitutions are mostly confined to lineages with duplicate copies of ATPα1 and that 9 of 11 amino acid substitutions in lineages with one copy occur at only two sites (111 and 122). is a platform for academics to share research papers.

Keywords: parallel evolution, convergent evolution, nonparallel evolu-tion, repeatability, fishes. A meta-analysis shows that parallel evolution is often rare, but there is a The hypothesis of the direct origin of birds from theropod dinosaurs has recently become widespread. Through the courses of their evolution they have come to remarkably similar forms, so much so that the marsupials are often named for their placental …
parallel evolution is a source of fascination, as the evolution of a particular life form is seen as one of the least probable chains of events th at one could imagine. This fascination is

What drives parallel evolution? The basis for this parallel evolution seems most readily explained by negative pleiotropic effects of most amino acid substitutions in this protein. Specifically, we examined the number of independent origins of each life habit and distinguished between convergent Parallel evolution, the evolution of geographically separated groups in such a way that they show morphological resemblances.

Significance. Access to this article can also be purchased. Here, we use evolve-and-resequence experiments with bacteria and yeast to dissect the …
Parallel evolution, which refers to different species or popula-tions that share a common ancestor independently evolve the same trait by changing the same genes, is known to occur and can play a role in the evolution of adaptive traits (Wood et al., 2005). If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. For a given set of amino acid sequences whose phylogenetic rela- To understand how individual genes drive the evolution of new, … Color pattern mimicry in Heliconius butterflies provides a key example of trait evolution via selection on large effect genes. The parallel evolution that we observe in influenza at the within-host and global scales contrasts with HIV, where similar mutations can arise within hosts that share an HLA type, but tend to revert upon transmission to recipients with different HLA types (Leslie et al., 2004; Herbeck et al., 2006; Lemey et al., 2006; Zanini et al., 2015). The study of convergent and parallel evolution at the amino acid sequence level involves two steps.

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